Then write an effective opening of your own, whether for a personal essay, an opinion piece, or an article for your school newspaper. Below are suggestions that may help you decide what and how to write. Complete them all, or just choose the ones that are most helpful for you. Analyze First Sentences: Take a look at this collection of Times headlines and their first sentences. Discuss what makes each successful.
What do you notice about how the different opening styles match the types of articles?
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- Step 6: Write introduction and conclusion | The Learning Centre – Online Programs!
The first three are from recent editions of The Times; the last two are well-known pieces from In the weeks that led to the huge across-the-board cuts to federal spending early this year, Obama administration officials warned of dire consequences for the Justice Department: F. The humble board book, with its cardboard-thick pages, gently rounded corners and simple concepts for babies, was once designed to be chewed as much as read.
Guy Fieri, have you eaten at your new restaurant in Times Square? Play a Matching Game: Use this interactive quiz to match each first sentence with the headline from the article or essay from which it most likely came.
How do they work together to inform the reader? The opening of the N. Take a look at how each analyst begins his piece. Think about your favorite basketball or sports team. Write a preview of the team as the season begins, starting with a clear, attention-grabbing opening sentence. Here are some opening sentences they wrote to introduce childhood memories:.
Would you want to read the rest of these memoirs? If you had just one sentence to begin a memoir about your childhood, what would you write?
How would you convey your experience? It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen. All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. How are the lists similar? Any noticeable differences? Which are your favorites? Discuss a book you have read recently that had a great opening line. What made its opening so effective? What makes an opening so important? What is it about some of these openings that make people remember them for the rest of their lives?
In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones.
The Concluding Paragraph:
For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs specifically paragraph 4. Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices e. In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought.
While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to this project.
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- Essay Response — Score 5.
- Essay Response — Score 6!
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For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority.
Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field?
The purpose of the introduction
Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage.
While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in?
How to Write an Essay Introduction (with Sample Intros)
These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up.
Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from.
Writing the introduction
The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget.
While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are:. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular.
Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities — rather than soccer fields or golf courses — becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate. Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all.
Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions e. Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language.
Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation.
This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them.
According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place.
Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable e. Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions e.
Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports.