Concept maps are typically hierarchical, with the subordinate concepts stemming from the main concept or idea.
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This type of graphic organizer however, always allows change and new concepts to be added. The Rubber Sheet Analogy states that concept positions on a map can continuously change, while always maintaining the same relationship with the other ideas on the map. A helpful way to determine the context of your concept map is to choose a focus question—something that needs to be solved or a conclusion that needs to be reached.
Once a topic or question is decided on, that will help with the hierarchical structure of the concept map. Find the key concepts that connect and relate to your main idea and rank them; most general, inclusive concepts come first, then link to smaller, more specific concepts. When created correctly and thoroughly, concept mapping is a powerful way for students to reach high levels of cognitive performance. A concept map is also not just a learning tool, but an ideal evaluation tool for educators measuring the growth of and assessing student learning. As students create concept maps, they reiterate ideas using their own words and help identify incorrect ideas and concepts; educators are able to see what students do not understand, providing an accurate, objective way to evaluate areas in which students do not yet grasp concepts fully.
Inspiration, Kidspiration and Webspiration Classroom also come with a variety of concept map examples, templates and lesson plans to show how concept mapping and the use of other graphic organizers can easily be integrated into the curriculum to enhance learning, comprehension and writing skills. For more concept map examples as well as other graphic organizer examples, mind map examples and more, click here. The final version of the master concept map is shown in Appendix II.
Since the internal consistency coefficient determined by KR came out to be almost the same as that determined by Cronbach's alpha Bademci, , the alpha coefficient for each type of map was separately calculated using SPSS 15 statistical software. These values, calculated for all 30 participants, are listed in Table 4. All students were informed that they are participating in a research, the data might be used for in published reports and they could leave work at any time without prejudice.
In the second stage of the pilot study, the preparation of the fill-in-the-blanks concept maps and the validity and reliability analysis of these maps were completed. A total of 30 chemistry students 25 females and 5 males studying in their second year at a state university were included in this pilot study. The participants in the second phase were different from those involved in the first stage.
At this stage, the participants received training on concept mapping that would be applied in the main study. This study used the multi-purpose sampling method, which perfectly aligns with qualitative research principles. According to Patton , the random sampling method has high expressive power for making valid generalizations about the universe, while the purposive sampling method is better suited for in-depth investigations of a certain case or for obtaining very rich data for certain circumstances.
McClure et al. The participants were chosen from among a selection of students who had no previous experience with concept maps to ensure uniformity of the research group. The participants were first briefed on gravimetric analysis by the lecturer of the course using the conventional expository method.
All map types were applied to all 19 students. The participants were not pre-informed about the fact that the same concept map was applied in four different formats in order to prevent the participants from memorizing the concepts and the relations, which would jeopardize the scoring of the map.
How to use a Concept Map to organize and comprehend information | clasnonttankbu.cf
Next, the participants prepared 3 concept maps about the gravimetric analysis on their own. This stage took 3 weeks two hours a week. During this stage, the participants continued to receive training in other analytical chemistry topics not directly connected with the gravimetric analysis. Concept mapping is a learning process whereby students can benefit from greater feedback and scaffolding to support their learning Pudelko et al.
European Journal of Education and Psychology
In this way, the students had the opportunity to re-examine the concepts that they realized were missing when they were creating the concept map. Also, the opinions of the participants on the use of concept maps as an individual learning tool were taken using written concept mapping opinion forms.
Based on the analysis of these opinion forms, some of the participants were selected to be interviewed. The participants were given the 14 concepts shown in the first column of Table 5 and were asked to create a concept map from scratch. The maps prepared by the participants were assessed in terms of their conceptional content and map components and then returned back to them after all the errors or flaws were clearly marked.
In addition to the first 14 concepts, 14 more concepts were given to the participants for the second concept map, bringing the total number of concepts to 28 concepts see Table 5. The participants made the necessary corrections on their second maps according to the feedback they received on the first ones. The second maps were also subjected to a thorough check for conceptual content and components, and any mistakes or flaws on the map were marked before returning them to the participants.
Finally, the participants were given 11 new concepts see Table 5 for the third map, in addition to those already given for the first two maps, bringing the total to 39 concepts for the final and most complicated map. Careful attention was given to increasing the number of concepts from the first map to the third map in a hierarchical manner.
The concept maps were scored according to the scoring system devised by Novak and Gowin With this system, each correct concept is scored 1 point, each correct proposition, 1 point, each correct and important cross link, 10 points, cross links of secondary importance, 2 points and each hierarchical level, 5 points. The hierarchy was predetermined and given to the participants, therefore it was not included in the scoring system.
The fill-in-the-blank concept maps were scored based on the master map prepared. The select-and-fill-in-the-nodes concept map included 37 concept gaps. The participants were asked to choose the most suitable concept from a list of 50 concepts that included 13 misleading ones. The 37 gaps in the maps were marked as true or false on the basis of the master map. The maximum points possible on this map were The points scored by the participants on this test were converted into decimal form in order to compare the points scored against the other maps.
The maps were scored according to how well the proposals and cross-lines matched with the master map.
The concept map: a learning tool for any subject
In SAFIL, the participants were asked to choose the most appropriate relation from the list containing 50 relations, 11 of which were misleading. Among the 41 relation gaps, 11 were cross linked, and 2 of these cross-linked relations were of secondary importance. The points scored by the participants on this map were also converted into decimal form.
In the partially-filled map there were 19 concepts and 19 relation gaps 9 cross-links, 1 of secondary importance , and a maximum possible points of The items of the Attitude Scale for Concept Mapping which includes 23 items in its original form related to the use of concept maps as a teaching or learning tool were analyzed Table 6 to determine their frequencies. With content analysis, any raw data similar to each other are compiled under certain themes, which are then presented as main categories Strauss and Corbin, Furthermore, the effect size, which is used to measure the magnitude of the method employed, or the size of difference between mean values, was determined Fraenkel and Wallen, Effect size is usually reported as a standardized difference or a standardized amount of shared variability Beins and McCarthy, In the statistical analysis, the effect size, which shows the size of the difference between the mean values of two groups, was computed with Cohen's d formula, the most widely used formula for this purpose Ozsoy and Ozsoy, Moreover, the APA suggests that effect size be reported because it provides important information about the applicability of the differences between means.
As seen from the plot, the concept test points scored by the participants did not show a linear change from the first map to the last.
Based on this data, it can confidently be claimed that the change in the success took place only during the individual concept maps learning period. The normal distribution condition is examined by Shapiro—Wilks test when the group size is smaller than 50 and by the Kolmogorov—Smirnov test when the group size is bigger than 50 Joaquim, Since the present study was carried out with 19 students, Shapiro—Wilks test was used for determining whether or not the points showed a normal distribution.
Table 7 shows the normal distribution data. The significance of the difference between the points showing a normal distribution was determined by the t -test, while the significance between the points not showing a normal distribution were investigated by Wilcoxon labeled rank test. Table 8 shows the t -test results and Table 9 gives the Wilcoxon labeled rank test results. When looking at the rank averages and totals, the difference was found to be in favor of the positive ranks for the post-test results.
According to these results, it can be said that the use of concept maps as a personal learning tool has a synergistic effect upon the success in understanding the concepts of gravimetric analysis. These values indicate that the effect size was highly significant. When Table 6 and Fig. Here are some excerpts from their opinions.
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The concept maps helped me to solidify my knowledge and to advance my knowledge on certain subjects by establishing the relations between the relevant concepts Mary. Concept maps helped me to learn the gravimetric analysis, enabling me to see the relation between the concepts William. It enables us to see the topic in a more integrated manner, which allows us to see the relations between the concepts much more easily Susan.
I realized that I learned something about gravimetric analysis after the preparation of the concept maps. I think that it is a non-rote based method with good educative power Jennifer. I would always try to memorize the concepts for topics that included so many of them. I was unable to establish any ties between them.
I was not learning; I was memorizing. But after the establishment of a concept map, I realized that I was not memorizing the concepts of gravimetric analysis any more.
I was learning them Anna. The lectures given in an expository manner do have a permanent effect on me. However, when I prepared a concept map, I think that I learned gravimetric analysis in a much more effective way Alice. The study revealed significant differences between the pre-test and post-test values on all the tests employed, in favor of the post-test grades. Considering that the pre-tests were applied after the presentation of the gravimetric analysis by a conventional method, it can be said that the increase in success, from pre-test to post-test was due to the concept mapping process.
In other words, the successes of the students in gravimetric analysis increased when they used concept maps as an individual learning tool. As a learning tool, concept maps help the students to see the relations between the different parts of the subject Novak, ; Schwendimann, In fact, when a person creates a concept map, they have the opportunity to see connections and relationships that they had not previously understood.
This allows the person to review the concepts they do not understand and thereby improve their learning. Since the features of a concept map and its many learning aids, such as orientation to active learning and summary of the topic, help concepts to be organized in the mind by establishing relationships between concepts and facilitate remembering, concept maps can be thought to contribute to the increase of students' success in conceptual understanding.
According to Novak and Gowin , concept maps present an important part of the topics in a systematic manner and make the key concepts much more understandable for the students. Similarly, Greene et al. Lin et al. It was further observed that the use of concept maps as a learning method increased understanding of gravimetric analysis to quite a large extent. The Rubber Sheet Analogy states that concept positions on a map can continuously change, while always maintaining the same relationship with the other ideas on the map.
A helpful way to determine the context of your concept map is to choose a focus question—something that needs to be solved or a conclusion that needs to be reached. Once a topic or question is decided on, that will help with the hierarchical structure of the concept map. Find the key concepts that connect and relate to your main idea and rank them; most general, inclusive concepts come first, then link to smaller, more specific concepts.
When created correctly and thoroughly, concept mapping is a powerful way for students to reach high levels of cognitive performance. A concept map is also not just a learning tool, but an ideal evaluation tool for educators measuring the growth of and assessing student learning. As students create concept maps, they reiterate ideas using their own words and help identify incorrect ideas and concepts; educators are able to see what students do not understand, providing an accurate, objective way to evaluate areas in which students do not yet grasp concepts fully.