Prostate cancer essays

Mol Cell Biol. Essential role of flotillin-1 palmitoylation in the intracellular localization and signaling function of IGF-1 receptor. J Cell Sci. A novel role for flotillin-1 in H-Ras-regulated breast cancer aggressiveness. Int J Cancer. Int J Mol Sci.

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Molecular networks in FGF signaling: flotillin-1 and cbl-associated protein compete for the binding to fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2. Nerve growth factor stimulates the concentration of TrkA within lipid rafts and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation through c-Cbl-associated protein. CAP defines a second signalling pathway required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. EMT, cell plasticity and metastasis. Cancer Metastasis Rev. Snail1-driven plasticity of epithelial and mesenchymal cells sustains cancer malignancy. Biochim Biophys Acta. Kaufhold S, Bonavida B.

Central role of Snail1 in the regulation of EMT and resistance in cancer: a target for therapeutic intervention. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. Dual regulation of Snail by GSK-3beta-mediated phosphorylation in control of epithelial—mesenchymal transition. Nat Cell Biol.

Int J Oncol. SNAIL transcription factor increases the motility and invasive capacity of prostate cancer cells. Mol Med Rep. Oncol Lett. Protein kinase D1 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through phosphorylation of snail.

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  8. Cancer Res. Up-regulation of flotillin-2 is associated with renal cell carcinoma progression. Tumour Biol. Flotillin-1 expression in human clear-cell renal cell carcinoma is associated with cancer progression and poor patient survival. Clin Cancer Res. Search for potential markers for prostate cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment in clinical tissue specimens using amine-specific isobaric tagging iTRAQ with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    J Proteome Res. SUMO-1 conjugation in vivo requires both a consensus modification motif and nuclear targeting. Nucleic Acids Res. Prediction of protein sumoylation sites via parallel cascade identification. In: Canadian medical and biological engineering conference. RNA interference-directed knockdown of urokinase plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor inhibits prostate cancer cell invasion, survival, and tumorigenicity in vivo.

    Identification of a novel membrane targeting domain and a role for palmitoylation. Integrative genomic and proteomic analysis of prostate cancer reveals signatures of metastatic progression. Cancer Cell. Molecular mechanisms of epithelial—mesenchymal transition. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. Repression of PTEN phosphatase by Snail1 transcriptional factor during gamma radiation-induced apoptosis. SUMOylation in carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett. Christofori G.

    Changing neighbours, changing behaviour: cell adhesion molecule-mediated signalling during tumour progression. EMBO J. Flotillin microdomains stabilize cadherins at cell—cell junctions. Biochem J.

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    Flotillin-1 defines a clathrin-independent endocytic pathway in mammalian cells. Sci Signal. A novel domain of caveolin-2 that controls nuclear targeting: regulation of insulin-specific ERK activation and nuclear translocation by caveolin J Cell Mol Med. The inhibitory effect of phospholemman on the sodium pump requires its palmitoylation.

    Fatty acylated caveolin-2 is a substrate of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin receptor substratedirected signaling activation. Rab6-mediated retrograde transport regulates inner nuclear membrane targeting of caveolin-2 in response to insulin.

    Prostate Cancer

    A novel actin cytoskeleton-dependent noncaveolar microdomain composed of homo-oligomeric caveolin-2 for activation of insulin signaling. Suitable parameter choice on quantitative morphology of A cell in epithelial—mesenchymal transition. Biosci Rep. Download references. PJ to HK. DJ is a recipient of the Global Ph.

    Prostate Cancer: Evolving Paradigms: From Biopsy to Treatment

    Correspondence to Yunbae Pak. Reprints and Permissions. Journal of Clinical Medicine Essays In Biochemistry Advanced search.

    What's to know about prostate cancer?

    Skip to main content. Prostate cancer is an androgen dependant adenocarcinoma. The tumor is slow growing and often begins in the posterior side of the prostate. It spreads by direct extension by the lymph nodes, seminal vesicles, urethral mucosa, and bladder wall. It all spreads via the veins from the prostate wich effect the pelvic bones, head of the femur, lower lumbar spine, liver, and lungs. Therefore, it is important for men to know signs and symptoms and screening measures to detect the disease.

    Cancer of the prostate is diagnosed in more than , Americans annually, and it is the second most common cancer in males over the age of Unfortunately there are no signs and symptoms of this disease unless it moves into the surrounding area. If this was to happen patients signs and symptoms would include urinary frequency, dysuria , slow urinary stream, and urgency. Signs that would show up later would be hematuria and urinary retention.

    The literature is full of reports of high-profile papers that have reported excellent diagnostic discrimination between groups, but subsequent independent validation was a failure. In most cases, various biases were critical factors, as outlined by Ransohoff 7.


    Some examples include:. Nuclear magnetic resonance profiling of urine for cancer detection, which failed repeated validation efforts 8. The serum proteomic profiling method proposed for diagnosis of ovarian and other cancers 9 and criticized until an independent validation published in Clinical Chemistry , sponsored by the Early Detection Research Network EDRN , confirmed the inability of the method to diagnose prostate cancer The discovery of lysophosphatidic acid as a diagnostically sensitive and specific test for ovarian cancer, leading to the formation of a company, Atairgin, which invested tens of millions of dollars to unsuccessfully validate the test in multicenter clinical trials and eventually closed its doors.

    A 4-analyte panel with reportedly high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for ovarian cancer detection 11 that was recently independently evaluated by EDRN and found to be no better than CA alone How do we then deal with this situation of initial spectacular reports with wide publicity and raised hopes but subsequent validation failures?

    As I indicated earlier 4 , organizations such as EDRN could independently validate biomarkers and publish the findings. Other helpful measures would be for journals publishing the original reports to give space to critics and encourage discussions, and for media to also publicize failures, not just promising initial data. Journal editors bear responsibility for establishing fair practices for their authors, readers and the public. In a recent letter in CAP Today 13 , I discussed my negative prior experience in trying to publish a letter in Urology commenting on the shortcomings of the assay used by Getzenberg 2.

    This letter was accepted for publication, but has never been published and the reasons for the delay not resolved.

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    Onconome, the company that collaborated and funded Dr. Getzenberg and his institutions, alleging breach of contract and scientific fraud.

    enter site Science can advance faster if developments are not only published, but also critically discussed in appropriate forums such as the journals themselves, as well as at conferences and other venues. Editors and publishers bear responsibility for promoting such discussions in any way possible.

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    This is precisely the reason that many journals publish letters.