Do not use quotation marks for indirect quotations. Example: According to their statement to the local papers, the Allens refuse to use pesticide because of potential water pollution. When in doubt, check copyright law. Quotation within a quotation. Use single quotation marks for a quotation enclosed inside another quotation. For example:. Omitted words in a quotation. If you leave words out of a quotation, use an ellipsis mark to indicate the omitted words. If you need to insert something within a quotation, use a pair of brackets to enclose the addition.
Use quotation marks for the titles of minor works short poems, short stories, etc. Use quotation marks for:. Titles of short or minor works , such as songs, short stories, essays, short poems, one-act plays, and other literary works that are shorter than a three-act play or a complete book. Titles of parts of larger works , such as chapters in books; articles in newspapers, magazines, journals, or other periodical publications; and episodes of television and radio series. But: Use italics for titles of major works or of works that contain smaller segments such as books; plays of three or more acts; newspapers, magazines, journals, or other periodical publications; films; and television and radio series.
See italics above. Use quotation marks to indicate words used ironically, with reservations, or in some unusual way. For words used as words themselves or for technical or unfamiliar terms used for the first time and defined , use italics. Punctuation with Quotation Marks. Use a comma to introduce a quotation after a standard dialogue tag, a brief introductory phrase, or a dependent clause.
Quotation Marks with Fiction // Purdue Writing Lab
While members of European cultures meet and shake hands as a gesture of greeting, members of Asian cultures bow to indicate respect. Put commas and periods within closing quotation marks, except when a parenthetical reference follows the quotation. Note: When parenthetical information falls within the closing punctuation, the information is shown to pertain only to that sentence. He also noted that such policy was foolish in the extreme.
- Do you italicize poems in an essay.
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Put colons and semicolons outside closing quotation marks. Put a dash, question mark, or exclamation point within closing quotation marks when the punctuation applies to the quotation itself and outside when it applies to the whole sentence.
Italics and Underlining: Titles Of Works
Does Dr. We won! Unnecessary Quotation Marks. Do not put quotation marks around the titles of your essays. Do not use quotation marks for common nicknames, bits of humor, technical terms that readers are likely to know, and trite or well-known expressions. Unless your professor or publisher insists, use underscoring only for creating live links. Underlining was used back in the time of typewriters because they only had one basic font face to work with. Publishers with multiple fonts at their disposal always had and employed italics and boldface where appropriate.
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Now that almost all of you are working digitally, you can use those multiple font faces and sizes as appropriate. American Psychological Association. Washington, DC, Associated Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. University of Chicago Press, Oxford University Press, Purdue University. Journal Abbreviation Resources.
Found 21 December Found December 4, Found 30 May Italics, Quotation Marks, Underscore General Logic: Underscore was originally used on typewriters because it was impossible to use italics given that there was only one set of keys. Navigation Italics You are here. Quotation Marks Underscore Resources Italics Use italics for emphasis, for unfamiliar foreign words and phrases, and for technical terms followed by definitions. Sacred works and objects: Italicize in titles, and in the individual published editions of sacred texts: The Talmud of the Land of Israel: A Preliminary Translation and Explanation.
Do not italicize the titles of books of the Bible: Genesis, Revelation, 1 Corinthians. Do not italicize sections of the Bible, prayers, religious events or services, or sacred objects: the Crucifixion, the Diaspora, the Hegira, the Sermon on the Mount. Examples: These rules do not apply to newspaper writing.
Examples: The word basically is often unnecessary and should be removed. Examples: Grrr!
In biology, genus and species names of living creatures are italicized. Extinct species known only from fossils are difficult to assign specific nomenclature to. We are H. The cedar waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum is a familiar American bird. Instead, employ italics as they were originally meant to be used. Quotation marks can be reserved for short works such as articles in periodicals, book chapters, short poems and songs, and other shorter items. They can also be used to indicate dialogue and other quoted material when italics would be onerous to read.
Quotation Marks with Fiction, Poetry, and Titles
There are a vast number of individual rules which come under these categories. For more detail, please check with the style book appropriate to your discipline or profession. Use italics for emphasis, for unfamiliar foreign words and phrases, and for technical terms followed by definitions. Italicize punctuation marks immediately following italicized words. When italic type is not available for example, in a typewriter or handwritten manuscript , underline to indicate italics; if the manuscript is later set in type, the typesetter will use italics for underlined words.
Italicize the titles of things that can stand by themselves. Thus we differentiate between the titles of novels and journals, say, and the titles of shorter poems, short stories, articles, and episodes for television shows. The titles of these shorter pieces would be surrounded with double quotation marks. In writing the titles of newspapers, do not italicize the word the, even when it is part of the title the New York Times , and do not italicize the name of the city in which the newspaper is published unless that name is part of the title: the Hartford Courant , but the London Times.
Italicize the titles of comic books, manga, and graphic novels, but put the titles of individual comic strips in quotation marks. The short ones go in quotation marks. Italicize titles in these categories as well.
Here are some specific examples:. Journals and Magazines: Time, U. Sacred works and objects:. Television and Radio Programs: Italicize repeated programs or long programs. Individual episodes or short films, commercials, etc. With other punctuation: When an exclamation mark or question mark is part of a title, make sure that that mark is italicized along with the title.
I got so tired of reading Dr. It may have caused brain damage.
Use italics for emphasis. If you are quoting, and add the emphasis yourself, make that very clear to your audience. These rules do not apply to newspaper writing. Use italics when discussing the word as a word rather than to use is in the meaning of the sentence in general.
Here is a place where editors and systems vary. The word basically is often unnecessary and should be removed. Notice that the apostrophe-s, used to create the plural of the word-as-word and , is not italicized. Use italics or quotation marks for foreign words, or earlier forms of an English word Old English, Middle English that would seem foreign to the present day reader. It is not necessary to italicize words that have come to have current use in English, however. Words as reproductions of sound. Thus the bees buzz but go bzzzz and dogs bark woof!
His head hit the stairs with a sick krthunk! Use them with care, however; overuse of italics and quotation marks is often seen as affected and patronizing. Do italicize them otherwise, whether real or fictional. Italics are used in certain disciplines for various specific purposes. Here are two of the commoner ones. Note that a genus name always has a capital letter, while a species name never does. In the law, the names of legal cases are italicized. Example:The famous case of Brown vs. Board of Education was a landmark in American legal history. Special note: If you have a sentence containing a phrase which would normally go into italics, and if for some reason the entire sentence needs to be italicized, the the phrase that would normally be in italics goes into ordinary roman type instead.