The Education section of their website includes seven sets of lessons under Teaching Resources, appropriate for a wide range of age levels. The lessons address clinical research, organ and tissue donation, biofuels, personalized healthcare, dementia, forensic use of bioinformation, and research involving animals.
Several lessons were based on reports prepared by the council. The teacher guides are very brief and are divided into multiple PDFs, which makes it difficult to follow the lesson plans.
Some of the materials have a UK orientation, which may limit their usefulness for U. For example, the organizations and mechanisms through which organ donation is coordinated in the UK or analyzing specific policies of the UK Department of Health are likely to interest U. The Policy section of the site provides summaries of European Court judgments on the storage and use of genetic information.
While ethical concerns about the storage and use of large amounts of genetic data are not appropriate for younger students, this resource could be useful for older students to make comparisons between countries. The movie begins with a case that motivates a proposal for an asthma study in children. A mock institutional review board discussion of the simulated proposal provides a unique opportunity for students to observe an example of careful oversight of human research.
It is available at www. Blogs that publish and aggregate current opinions are particularly useful when approaching subjects of ongoing bioethical controversy, such as recent legal decisions and cases being reported in the media. One of the best examples is the Bioethics Forum www.
The opinions expressed in the blog are those of the authors—who range from medical students to professors of bioethics—and not official positions of the Hastings Center. Recent topics include pronoun use with transgender patients, the use of cognitive enhancers in university students, and the regulation of surrogate motherhood.
For example, a University of Leicester—produced video on Model Organisms in Biomedical Research min provides an overview of how yeast and Drosophila research can be used to explore questions related to human health before moving to studies in mice. The Girl with Three Biological Parents min is a BBC-produced video on the controversy about use of mitochondrial replacement in infertility treatment. The posts include short videos from TV news, movie trailers, and student-produced videos; inaccuracies in the videos are noted by the blog author.
The Bioethics Forum on the Hastings Center website publishes several posts a month about current issues in bioethics www. The collection often posts multiple entries in one day, with topics ranging from funding medical research through the viral ice bucket challenge to successful womb transplantation.
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In general, the articles are written for the educated layperson, but considering the specificity of the issues discussed in the posts, they would likely be more suitable for advanced students with prior experience in bioethics. In , two films were released about infamous social psychology experiments. It is based on the study of the same name conducted by Philip Zimbardo using a mock prison in the basement of the Stanford Psychology Department. College student participants were randomly assigned to the roles of prison guard or prisoner and, in relatively short time, began exhibiting sadistic behavior or mental breakdowns.
Both films, although not freely available online, could serve as material to facilitate discussions about informed consent and protecting human research participants. The Stanford Prison Experiment has an accompanying website www. In general, the content is written for the educated layperson and is appropriate for older high school and undergraduate students.
The background and description of the experiment, located under the Story tab on the website, are available in seven languages. The Stanford Prison Experiment website www. The blog was started in by Carl Elliott, a professor at the Center for Bioethics at the University of Minnesota, to accompany his Investigative Journalism and Bioethics class.
The blog largely covers issues concerning protection of research participants. The blog was started in August by two independent scholars, Adam Marcus and Ivan Oransky, in an effort to promote transparency and integrity in scientific publishing. The blog provides a unique window into the scientific process by highlighting research errors and fraud. Bioethical controversies can provide a powerful way for students to see the relevance of science and thus engage them in learning science content.
We thank A.
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Malcolm Campbell for critical comments and helpful suggestions on this article. CBE on September 22, National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Amy J. Hawkins 1 and Louisa A.
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Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Hawkins ude. Received Sep 17; Accepted Sep Hawkins and L. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author s. Does who is doing the nudging e. Give justifications for your responses. Does nudging have to be intentional, or does anyone who creates a decision context e. Justify your response. Transgender people self-identify with a gender different from the one society assigns to them at birth. For example, a transgender person might self-identify as male despite having been raised female.
Cisgender people, in contrast, self-identify with the same gender society assigns to them at birth. Some transgender people suffer greatly from the discontinuity between their gender identity and their physical features.
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New York State recently added coverage for transgender care under Medicare and Medicaid. However, the limits of this coverage are uncertain; for example, it is unclear if procedures such as breast augmentation and hair removal are covered. Proponents of this change consider it a major victory for transgender inclusion, enabling especially vulnerable members of the LGBTQ community to access services that they would otherwise be unable to afford.
Moreover, proponents hope that providing treatment will help transgender people feel less distress, thereby reducing the unusually high rate of suicide attempts in this community. Those who oppose this change argue that these procedures, like other cosmetic procedures, are all elective, and should not be paid for with tax dollars. Should gender dysphoria be considered a psychological problem or a physical problem? Does your answer to this question change your views on the medical treatment it requires? Which kinds of medical treatment should be paid for using tax dollars?
Although the United States attempted to rescue Foley and others, it maintains a strict policy of not paying ransoms for hostages.
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An argument against this policy is that it fails to respect the value of innocent lives taken by groups like ISIS. Recently, it was revealed that the American government not only refuses to pay ransoms for hostages, but also legally threatens those who might try to do so, including the Foley family.
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However, not everybody is in favor of applying this policy to public officials and private citizens alike. It slowed them down for months in raising money. Who knows what might have happened? More recently, the government announced that it will not threaten to prosecute families who try to pay ransoms for family members who are taken hostage. Is it morally justifiable for the government to refuse to pay ransoms when doing so would save the lives of hostages? Assuming it has a policy against paying ransoms for hostages, is it morally justifiable for the government to enforce this policy on its own citizens when they try to pay ransoms?
Does the fact that ransom payments will likely contribute to further violence by hostage-takers make it morally impermissible for families to pay for the release of family members taken hostage? Why or why not?
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If a public official or private citizen were confident that he or she could pay a ransom secretly, so that the money would secretly but not openly support violence by hostage-takers, would that change your view about the morality of paying the ransom? Justify your answer. Seven young orcas were separated from the group, netted, and removed from the ocean. An additional four juveniles and one female adult orca died during the struggle.
Griffin and Goldsberry attempted to cover up the deaths by weighing down and sinking the bodies, but they eventually washed up on shore. The public outcry regarding the incident led to a law banning the capture of marine wildlife in Puget Sound.
Lolita is the only surviving orca taken from Puget Sound. She has spent over three decades performing, seven days a week, at Miami Seaquarium. Her home is about the size of a hotel swimming pool, which prevents her from engaging in many normal activities such as hunting for food, swimming miles per day, using sonar, and living in community with other orcas.
Lolita originally had another Southern Resident killer whale named Hugo as a tank mate, but Hugo died of an aneurysm in The Seaquarium has been promising to build a new tank since Killer whales have extremely strong family bonds. Offspring stay with their mothers for life.
The Washington State-based Center for Whale Research has developed a plan that would prepare Lolita to return to the wild. She would spend time in a protected, netted-off cove in Puget Sound while being taught how to hunt for food, experiencing the rhythms of the sea, and listening to the vocalizations of her family. Orcas are actually large dolphins, and many captive dolphins have been successfully released back into the wild. Seaquarium staff say that Lolita is happy and healthy and believe that releasing her back into the ocean would be cruel. They caution that she may encounter the same fate as Keiko, the orca who starred in the movie "Free Willy.
Seaquarium subsequently filed a permit to re-capture Keiko, allegedly for breeding purposes with Lolita. Keiko died of pneumonia about a year after his release. Should Lolita be released back to the wild? Does the fact that we cannot be certain she will be accepted by her family affect your judgment about this? Is it ethical for humans to capture wild animals for the purpose of making money?
Is there an ethical difference between capturing wild animals and raising animals in captivity? Some people claim that theme parks like Seaquarium and SeaWorld are good because they educate the public about wildlife.