The series Spartacus takes a different view, with a graphically violent depiction of the man and his times and a focus on the archetype of the gladiator--the physically powerful, courageous and righteous man. This collection of new essays studies the series as an exploration of masculinity. In the world of Spartacus, men jockey for social position, question the nature of their lives, examine their relationships with women and with each other, and their roles in society and the universe.
As an adaptation, the series also offers a compelling study in the composite nature of historical narrative in television and film, where key facts from original sources are seamlessly interwoven with period embellishments, presenting audiences with authentic history beside fiction that may as well be. Read more Read less. Review "Provides 11 original essays on the Starz cable network series.
About the Author Award-winning novelist Michael G. No customer reviews. Spartacus, meantime, had made good use of his winter respite while camped in the Appenines. His men scoured the area, raiding estates and towns, particularly in search of horses.
Spartacus And The Slave Rebellion In Rome History Essay
The slave leader hoped to build and train a cavalry unit to be his eyes as his rabble marched toward the Alps. Towns such as Consentia and Metapontum were stormed, their newly released slaves joining ranks with Spartacus and swelling the army to more than 70, Any freed slaves capable of bearing arms received rudimentary training. In the spring of 72 bc, the gladiator army trekked northward, pursued by the consuls and their legions.
In three separate engagements, Spartacus first defeated Lentulus, who had attempted to surround the slaves, and then both Gellius and the praetor Arrius, who had recently slain Crixus and his Gauls. To appease the ghost of Crixus, Romans were sacrificed or forced to fight each other as gladiators. Surprisingly, Spartacus chose to lead his slaves back into Italy.
Perhaps a contingent of his gladiators preferred looting the peninsula as Crixus had, and Spartacus may have feared that a further division of his force could be disastrous if Roman legions pursued them and forced them into battle.
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He may have even entertained the idea of raiding Rome, the source of enslavement of so many peoples. For whatever reasons, the Thracian led his mob southward. Rome was beside itself with anxiety. The gladiator army was estimated at between 75, and , With the losses of the various legions, the city was short of available troops and able commanders. The most experienced generals, such as Quintus Metellus and Gnaeus Pompey, were stationed with their battle-hardened legions in rebellious Spain, while Lucius Lucullus kept an eye on troublesome Asia Minor.
For the moment, only poorly trained local levies remained to defend Rome. The Roman senate finally gave supreme military command to the praetor Marcus Crassus, the only man who offered to take the post. A multimillionaire, Crassus had built his fortune through astute real estate deals. More important, he had gained valuable experience while serving under the command of the great Roman general Sulla, who died in 78 bc. Crassus inherited the remnants of the legions of Publius Varinius that had fled the battlefield in their earlier disastrous engagement with the gladiators, in addition to several newly raised legions.
Crassus ordered his lieutenant Mummius to lead two of the new legions in a circle behind the slave rabble, but, as Plutarch notes, not to join battle nor even skirmish with them.
Unfortunately for Crassus, Mummius unwisely attacked the gladiators from the rear, obviously thinking that he would have the advantage of surprise. In the ensuing melee, many of the legionaries were slain, and hundreds of others broke rank and fled. Crassus was livid with anger. Lots were drawn in each group, with one unlucky soldier chosen for execution. The entire army was forced to witness the deaths of their comrades as warning to any others who considered disobedience. With discipline re-established, the new general proceeded to retrain and rearm his troops.
Each soldier became proficient in the use of the short-bladed gladius , ideal for either thrusting or slashing. In addition, the Roman levies were drilled in the use of the pilum , an iron-headed spear whose metal neck, extending to a wooden shaft, would snap downward after hitting an object to prevent its being thrown back by an enemy.
The legions were also divided into regiments, called cohorts, of men each and were instructed how to maneuver on the field of battle. A complete legion stood ready for action with roughly 5, men. With eight new legions under his command, Crassus pursued Spartacus the length of Italy, getting the best of him in a running battle in the Lucania region in the south. Stung, the gladiator army limped through Bruttium on the toe of the Italian peninsula, finally reaching the coastal city of Rhegium across the Strait of Messina from Sicily.
Spartacus managed to contact Sicilian pirates, paying them handsomely from gold and treasure looted from countless estates to ferry thousands of his men to Sicily, where he hoped to rekindle the slave rebellion that had erupted there barely a generation earlier. The pirates, however, deceived the rebels. They accepted the payment but failed to take their fleet to the approved rendezvous. For the moment, the gladiator army was literally left high and dry on the Bruttium peninsula.
Crassus, in the meantime, realized he had the slaves trapped. Rather than face the cornered gladiators in a pitched battle, he ordered his legions to construct a wall completely across the peninsula to hem in the enemy and starve them into submission. The legionaries excavated a ditch 15 feet deep and wide across the mile distance, then fashioned a wood and stone wall along one edge of the ditch. Spartacus, for a time, ignored the Roman wall. He desperately searched for some other means to transport his army but could not devise one. With winter setting in and supplies running low, he determined his only recourse was to smash through the barricade across the peninsula.
The Thracian waited for a snowy night and a wintery storm, noted Plutarch, when he filled up a small portion of the ditch with earth and timber and the boughs of trees, and battered his way through. With the freed gladiators once more tramping toward Lucania, Rome panicked. The senate authorized the return of Pompey from Spain and Lucullus from his recent wars with Mithridates to bolster the legions of Crassus.
Fearing the glory of subduing the gladiators would be won by those political rivals, Crassus redoubled his efforts. Fortunately for the Romans, the gladiators were once again weakened by internal squabbling. Two more Gauls, Ganicus and Cestus, broke away from the main army to plunder area villages and estates. Encamped at the Lucanian Lake, this splinter band was surprised by Crassus and his legions. With no retreat possible, the gladiators fought with the desperate fury of cornered men. More than 12, rebels fell in the battle before Spartacus arrived to rescue the survivors.
Pursued by the Romans, Spartacus led his army to the mountains of Petelia. Suddenly Spartacus wheeled his force about and fell on the Romans. In the furious battle that followed, Scrophas was wounded, and his legionaries barely managed to drag him to safety.
The defeat became a rout, as Romans streamed away by the score. News reached the slaves that Pompey and Lucullus had been dispatched with their legions and were at that moment marching to put an end to the insurrection. You can view samples of our professional work here. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.
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Spartacus is known to have been the most famous leader of the slaves in the Third Servile War when a main slave uprising came up against the Roman Republic. Not much is known about Spartacus before the events of this war and the available history about Spartacus is mostly contradictory and unreliable.
The struggle is seen as oppressed people who were fighting to be given their rights and this has found a new meaning to the modern writers since the start of the 19th century. Spartacus is seen as a folk-hero among the ancient and modern cultures for his rebellion which is seen as inspirational. In the early days, the Roman Economy was rooted on Agriculture and also war. The occupation of the roman citizen was either a peasant or a farmer. In the period between during the second Punic war, this fact began to adjust. The Romans had to battle overseas and when they went for the fights, they came back to find that their farms were bankrupt.
The soldiers often stayed overseas for a long time during the war and could therefore not manage their farms well. The cities of Italy seemed to be advancing fast together with the countryside.apunroder.tk
A Man Named Spartacus Spartacus Revolt History Essay
The rich made use of persuasion or even force to grab or purchase property which connected to theirs or any other small property which belonged to the poor. Because of this, they ended up operating large farms instead of small ones.
They therefore employed slaves and shepherds to work on these estates. The slaves had many children and the rich benefited from this as more work was done in the farms. With time, the powerful went on to become very rich and the number of slaves was also increasing everyday. Meanwhile, the Italians suffered from depopulation and shortage of men. They also were not employed as the lands belonged to the rich and slaves worked on them instead of using the free men.
Because of this, the countryside became overcrowded by slaves who were usually prisoners of war or bought from slave traders. During some times, the strong captives were forced to fight as gladiators and this was a bloody spectacle which was loved by the ancients. Spartacus was one of the slaves who became a leader of the rebellion of gladiators which rose to a full-scale war.
Spartacus Essay Mubarrat Choudhury | Spartacus | Slavery
The early sources come to a common agreement that Spartacus was a Thracian. These were a group of indo-European tribes living in areas in Eastern, Central and southeastern Europe. He is believed to have served as a soldier with the Romans but later became a prisoner and sold to the gladiator. Different writers however have different believes about his origin, it can be concluded that he was either an auxiliary from the legions of the Romans and was later condemned to slavery or a captive who had been taken by the legions.
In the year 73 BC, Spartacus was one in a group of gladiators planning to escape but this plan was betrayed although about 70 of the men managed to fight their way from the school by te use of kitchen implements. They also managed to steal a number of wagons of gladiatorial shield and arms. The escaped gladiators chose three leaders who included Spartacus, Crixus and Oenomaus. Some writers believe that this selection was intended as a representation of their different backgrounds. According to Plutarch,.